IN THIS SUMMARY
During the time following the economic crisis of 2007-09, many warned that the entire U.S. economic system was doomed to fail. In Capitalism 4.0, author Anatole Kaletsky argues that this crisis was just the beginning of the next phase in an adaptive social system that changes according to its environment. Throughout history, there have been three major stages of capitalism thus far. During these stages, public opinion has vacillated between the belief that the market should be left to itself and the belief that government should protect the public from the market. The capitalist system has always been powered by the forces of ambition, individualism and a competitive spirit. These human qualities will drive the next version of capitalism to meet the needs of the future, whatever those needs may be.